Thursday, February 6, 2020
Does learning and employee development contribute to organisational success and performance - a study within social care services - Essay Example 6). Because of the complexity of social care services, each of the social care workers should continuously improve their knowledge, skills and positive attitude when managing the cases of each client. The purpose of gathering a literature review is to determine the importance and impact of learning and employee development in organizational and individual performance and success. Aside from discussing the most appropriate learning approaches that are applicable to voluntary sector social care environment, the driving forces, barriers to learning, and challenges associated with establishing a successful learning culture will be tackled in details. To determine the impact of regulation and registration of voluntary social care workforce by the Scottish Social Services Council on learning and employee development in social care environment, a literature review will be conducted to examine how the regulation and registration of voluntary social care workforce by the Scottish Social Services Council could benefit the learning and employee development. Based on the gathered literature review, recommended solutions on how to encourage social care workers to take advantage of promoting organizational culture that is open to continuous learning and employee development programmes including ways on how the organization can effectively remove barriers to learning will be provided in details. The main purpose of this research study is to determine whether or not learning and employee development has a significant contribution to the success and performance of voluntary sector social care organization. As a student enrolled in the course of MSc Human Resource Management and Development, the rationale for selecting this research topic is to enhance my understanding about the impact learning and employee development has on organizational success and performance. In this study, possible link between learning and effective development of staff of voluntary social
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Sports Performance Essay Describe theories related to personality and how they affect sports performance. Evaluate critically personality profiling in sport. What is a personality? Hollander tells us that a personality Is the sum of an individuals characteristics which make a human unique. But it is not known for sure what a personality actually is or how we actually begin to form them. There exist three main personality theories and each of them relate to sports performance in their own way. The first theory is called the trait perspective theory. Trait theory states that we are born with personality characteristics that influence the way in which we behave in sport and in everyday life. Personality traits are stable and therefore vary little over time. Some sports performers may have an aggressive trait and this may surface in a variety of different situations. The key people behind this theory are Eysenck, Cattell and Girdano. Eysenck identified four primary personality traits and arranged them in a 2 dimensional diagram. The model was laid out in a cross, and at one end you have introversion and extroversion, and the other stable and neurosis. According to Eysenck you could either be stable or neurotic, but not both for example. It is said that extroverts, with their outgoing and sociable nature, would be more suited for team games such as football. Where as a quiet, reserved Introvert would be mores suited for individual sports such as archery. This data was collected by POMS, or profile of mood states a type of personality profiling. Cattell argued that more than just two or three dimensions were needed in order to create a full picture of a persons personality. He proposed that personality could be reduced to and measured in terms of 16 personality factors. He argued that measuring these factors via his test would give an appropriate personality profile. He recognised that personality was more dynamic than Eysenck suggested and could fluctuate according to the situation. So according to Cattell, a football player who never normally shows signs of aggression, may show signs when involved in a certain situation. Girdano was also a trait theorist and he suggested there are two distinct personality types, Type A and Type B. Type A according to Girano would be; highly competitive, have a strong desire to win, fast working, controlling and prone to stress. Type B would be the polar opposite of this, and would be; non-competitive, unambitious, slow working, no urge to control and less prone to stress. From this we see that the first distinct personality type would be more suited and more successful for a team game, and Type B would be more suitable for an individual game. We also see that Type A would be likely to get stressed in high pressure situations where as Type B would keep calm, however it would be likely for Type B to be unable to trigger any sort of aggressive or competitive characteristic when it mattered. The second theory is called the social learning perspective theory. The social learning theory, developed by Bandura, differs from trait and interactional approaches in that it sees individual differences in behaviour as resulting from different learning experiences. This means that what determines an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s response to a situation is not so much their genetic make-up or the constraints of the particular situation, but instead how past experience has taught that person to act. Behaviour therefore changes depending on the situation and is therefore a product of our interaction with the environment. Banduras model shows us how this personality theory affects sports performance. An inexperienced performer may be inspired by the positive attitude and commitment of an experienced player, and then chooses to copy desirable approach, receiving positive reinforcement in doing so. The third and final personality theory is the interactionist approach, which was based on the work done by Hollander. It is a combination of the trait and social learning perspectives. It suggests to us that personality is modified and behaviour is formed when genetically inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance, thus meaning that behaviour is unpredictable. It also explains to us why behaviour can change in different situations, so for example a competitive rugby player may not be so competitive when off the field of play. Personality profiling is done to see which personalities are fit for what sport, and if a certain individual personality is one that all athletes may share. This is difficult due to the fact there is no clear, universal definition of a personality. Personality profiling involves measuring an athlete on a number of personality scales and building up a picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Tests can be measured in a various number of ways, through; questionnaires, interviews, observations or profile of mood states. There are a number of problems with personal profiling though. There is no conclusive evidence that a sports personality actually exists, so far there only exists theories surrounding the matter and no hard evidence. Profiling results are usually subjective, and conclusions may be influenced by personal opinions with no support of scientific evidence. Profiling results are invalid more often than not. It is feared that an athlete may unconsciously modify their own behaviour to match up to the profile ascribed to them. There also exists a reliability issue, due to the fact questionnaires are often carried out using self report, so therefore not always answered correctly or honestly.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Pfizer Case Study Pfizer Inc. is a large pharmaceutical company that engages in the discovery of new technologies, the manufacture of prescription and "over the counter" (OTC) medicines, as well as the marketing of such products. It operates in three distinct segments that include Human Health, Consumer Healthcare, and Animal Health. For fiscal year 2004, the company generated approximately $53 billion in revenue that contributed to over $11 billion in net income.(Pfizer, 2004) The Cow and Calf division of the Animal Health segment markets its products direct to cattle ranchers. Such products include vaccines, medications, and antibiotics to support healthy and consistent herds of beef producing cattle. It segmented the market into three distinct categories. Hobbyists herd less than 100 cows; Traditionalists commonly carry between 100 to 499, and Businesses are working with 500 or more. (Mohr, 1999) Time spent in the field with the ranchers was allocated based on the volume of product purchased by each individual. Those that spent higher dollar amounts received the most attention (in the form of personal visits, seminar offerings, and trial product samples). Although the ranchers appreciate the visits and the personal attention from the sales representatives they trust their veterinarians opinion over everyone else. Pfizer has traditionally used two distribution channels for its Animal Health products: Veterinarian Offices and Feed Stores. It has also tended to view the rancher as the end user of its product, but due to the size segmentation it may or may not understand each individual customers need, nor does it grasp its role in the larger supply chain (Ranchers-Feed Lots-Meat Packers-Retail-Consumers). At the time of the case, the beef industry was in a state of decline. Increasing consumer sentiment towards the negative health effects of red meat timed with increasing inventories of product supplied from Canada and Mexico as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) had caused prices in the consumer market to plummet. (Mohr, 1999) As a result, ranchers were seeing that their finished product was commanding lesser dollar values while their inputs of feed and medication was remaining the same or rising. Another factor contributing to the shrinking profit margins of beef producers was the overall consistency and quality of the meat. Products such as pork and chicken were beginning to be packaged by Tyson and Perdue as ready to eat meals (Mohr, 1999).
Sunday, January 12, 2020
As a result of the economic crisis, the amount of children in risk of poverty is growing. Poverty is considered to be lack of access to financial resources, services and chances for the young people to develop, become successful, confident and flourish. Children in poverty are those ones living in families in low income and who can't meet the adequate standard of life. The failure to protect young people from deprivation is one of the significant mistakes which one society could admit.The highest price is paid by the children, but the society is facing a cost as well: less people with good qualification, lower productivity, poor health education, high risk of unemployment and dependence to social benefits, and loss of community connection. This is the reason why the Government and many independent organisations, like CPAG, Barnardos, JRF, Save the Children, e.g., make a strong attempt to find the solution and end the children poverty, obtaining an efficient resolution required to ana lyse the problem in his dept. To understand what stands behind the meaning we have to examine the factors included in Child Poverty measurement, what causes it and the impacts.It's difficult to clarify the definition of child poverty and to observe the number of young people living in it. To specify the problem, the Government has generated a Ã¢â¬Å"multidimensional measure of child povertyÃ¢â¬ . The elements in this measurement are created on researches of what's causing the privation and how it impacts on children's lives. The first element is the Ã¢â¬Å"IncomeÃ¢â¬ . It's holding the leader position in the adolescent's life, for example, the parents on low income cannot afford to buy accurate clothes and healthy food.The Government is taking into account the Ã¢â¬Å"Material DeprivationÃ¢â¬ as well. This measure includes factors like the frequency of enjoyable activities and social gatherings families can perform like birthday celebrations, friend's visits and community meet ings.Another component is the Ã¢â¬Å"Poor housingÃ¢â¬ . Poor housing is an unheated home, congested, overloaded or in unsafe area. Living in that environment can have an instant impact on children's health, comfort and self-esteem.Ã¢â¬Å"Access to Quality EducationÃ¢â¬ is another important component. Attending a school with satisfying facilities and outstanding teachers can emancipate the achievement in children, where the opposite Ã¢â¬â attending a falling school, could put a stop on a child's motivation and future success. That's why the Government registered it as an important part of the child poverty measurement.Another main point is Ã¢â¬Å"Family StabilityÃ¢â¬ . Children growing in aggressive surroundings, with violent parents and children witnessing divorcement are more likely to develop mental and physical illnesses and behaviour.The last element, Ã¢â¬Å"Parental HealthÃ¢â¬ , has a remarkable effect upon young people. Looking after their ill parents can put a bar rier childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress.Multiple factors could cause child poverty, but some of them are very difficult to be identified. That's why we will look at most remarkable ones.Ã¢â¬Å"WorklessÃ¢â¬ is a significant component. This can cause depressive conditions, alcoholism and loss of confidentiality in some parents. It has a negative interference in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing as well, expressed in an inadequate behaviour, lack of interests in future realization and less independence.Additional cause is Ã¢â¬Å"Unmanageable Debt.Ã¢â¬ The inaccurate financial management can leave parents with less or no money to cover the primary needs of their children. Furthermore, consumer research published in Relate Argument Survey (1998) have found that the Ã¢â¬Å"money issues are the main cause of arguments within couples,Ã¢â¬ expanding the dangers of family breakdown and stress in youngsters.Working doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always mean that people are far from poverty. There are twoÃ more i mportant factors to be mentioned here: the Ã¢â¬Å"Parental Skill LevelÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Low Paid WorkÃ¢â¬ . The lack of good qualifications increases the chances of unemployment or low payment. The results are low-income and deprivation. Many circumstances within the family life can cause child poverty, including ineffective beneficial system, disability, e.g., lone parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ households.Growing up in indigent background has irreversible consequences among childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare, their personality, emotional development and future potential. The poverty affects childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, emotional and psychological health. Injuries and death in youngsters are closely linked to livelihood in poor housings and unsafe areas where the risks factors, like main busy roads and crime, are higher.A range of chronic conditions, like asthma, diabetes and dental caries, iron deficiency anaemia, cerebral palsy, low birth weight and preterm birth are associated with the social depriva tion. Acute illness, pneumonia and tubercular infection are greater among children in social disadvantage. Poor behaviour and emotional problems in children are socially patterned. The crime offences in children, underage pregnancies and teenage motherhood are more common in deprived and disadvantaged communities.Infants born in poor families often develop delay in speech and understanding, and , according to Social Mobility: Narrowing Social Class Educational Attainment Gaps, DfES, (2006)Ã¢â¬ This gap grows over time, with many poor children failing two years behind by the age of 14.Ã¢â¬ Many children living in poverty leave school early or without qualification. This has long-lasting impact on their lives because as adults they are facing unemployment, low-income and emotional discomforts.Economic, social and political development of the UK, to some extent, depends on whether children grow up happy, healthy, well educated, protected and confident in themselves. Childhood is short, but it has strong imprint on human life. Children that donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to school or have lower qualifications and children that donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive good health care may become the marginal part of society for the rest of their lives.By investing in children, the Government can help them break the cycle of poverty which they inherit from their parents. Ending the child poverty can result in an overall reduction of deprivation in the society, preventing the new generation from misery and isolation.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
From a young age, individuals learn about what is right and what is wrong. According to Sandra Crosser, Ph.D., many young children do not have a clear understanding of right and wrong. As children grow, their views on the world develop. Many will argue that children gain their morals from their parents; others say that children get their morals from the people that they interact with. The development of morals is a topic of controversy in both the scientific and philosophical/ethical communities. When thinking about higher education and the role ethics play on the individuals, many psychologists and other professions have considered whether or not universities are capable of creating ethical individuals, or if students develop their ethicsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Chen, Dalton, and Crosby begin by discussing how, Ã¢â¬Å"moral and religious values were a centerpiece of institutional missionÃ¢â¬ (Chen). But these authors discuss as years pass, the value of ethical/moral educati on has changed. Chen, Dalton, and Crosby state, Ã¢â¬Å"By the 1960s, most colleges and universities in the United States, including many historically faith oriented institutions, had adopted a secular orientation that relegated matters of faith and religion to the private realm of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives and increasingly to the periphery of academic lifeÃ¢â¬ (Chen). In the 1960s, ethics and morals were not as prominent in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ education, as it had been in earlier years. Ã¢â¬Å"Over the past twenty years, concern has grown that American higher education is failing its legacy and responsibility for encouraging moral and civic capacities so critical in a democratic societyÃ¢â¬ (Chen). Chen, Dalton, and Crosby are demonstrating why they believe that schools are responsible for creating ethical individuals. Chen, Dalton, and Crosby have heard Ã¢â¬Å"College officials [from schools where ethics courses are not required] are now reporting greater student interest and partic ipation in campus organizations and activities that have a spiritual and ethical focusÃ¢â¬ (Chen). This example demonstrates that ethics are acquired before the individual enters a college andShow MoreRelatedEthical Dilemm Ethical And Ethical Dilemmas1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthical dilemma is an issue that has no satisfactory resolution. A conflict between two ethical standards and situations can result in ethical dilemma. The ethical behavior of an individual is determined by the cultural norms and the societal norms. This develops a sense of right and wrong which helps in decision making. Failure to make proper decision due to ethical conflict results in ethical dilemma. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
After being found and captured in Argentina, Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann, known as the architect of the Final Solution, was put on trial in Israel in 1961. Eichmann was found guilty and sentenced to death. At midnight between May 31 and June 1, 1962, Eichmann was executed by hanging. The Capture of Eichmann At the end of World War II, Adolf Eichmann, like many top Nazi leaders, attempted to flee defeated Germany. After hiding in various locations within Europe and the Middle East, Eichmann eventually managed to escape to Argentina, where he lived for a number of years with his family under an assumed name. In the years after World War II, Eichmann, whose name had come up numerous times during the Nuremberg Trials, had become one of the most wanted Nazi war criminals. Unfortunately, for many years, no one knew where in the world Eichmann was hiding. Then, in 1957, the Mossad (the Israeli secret service) received a tip: Eichmann may be living in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After several years of unsuccessful searches, Mossad received another tip: Eichmann was most likely living under the name of Ricardo Klement. This time, a team of secret Mossad agents was sent to Argentina to find Eichmann. On March 21, 1960, the agents had not only found Klement, they were certain he was the Eichmann they had been hunting for years. On May 11, 1960, the Mossad agents captured Eichmann while he was walking from a bus stop to his home. They then took Eichmann to a secret location until they were able to smuggle him out of Argentina nine days later. On May 23, 1960, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion made the surprise announcement to the Knesset (Israels parliament) that Adolf Eichmann was under arrest in Israel and was soon to be put on trial. The Trial of Eichmann Adolf Eichmanns trial began on April 11, 1961 in Jerusalem, Israel. Eichmann was charged with 15 counts of crimes against the Jewish people, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and membership in a hostile organization. Specifically, the charges accused Eichmann of being responsible for the enslavement, starvation, persecution, transportation and murder of millions of Jews as well as the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Gypsies. The trial was to be a showcase of the horrors of the Holocaust. Press from around the world followed the details, which helped educate the world about what really happened under the Third Reich. As Eichmann sat behind a specially made bullet-proof glass cage, 112 witnesses told their story, in specific detail, of the horrors they experienced. This, plus 1,600 documents recording the implementation of the Final Solution were submitted against Eichmann. Eichmanns main line of defense was that he was just following orders and that he just played a small role in the killing process. Three judges heard the evidence. The world waited for their decision. The court found Eichmann guilty on all 15 counts and on December 15, 1961 sentenced Eichmann to death. Eichmann appealed the verdict to Israels supreme court but on May 29, 1962 his appeal was rejected. Near midnight between May 31 and June 1, 1962, Eichmann was executed by hanging. His body was then cremated and his ashes scattered at sea.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
St. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s Honor Center v. Hicks The St. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s Center v. Hicks case created national storm after the Supreme Court decision that an employee must provide evidence and prove discrimination in the workplace. To demonstrate discrimination, an employee must conform under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cundiff, Chaitovitz, 1994). Justice Scalia labeled Saint MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s Center v. Hicks case Ã¢â¬Å"pretext-plusÃ¢â¬ approach. Other courts, commentators, and analysts originally also classified the term pretext-plus. The approach of this case is similar to Ã¢â¬Å"pretext-onlyÃ¢â¬ approach from the case McDonnell Douglas Corp v. Green of 1973 (Cundiff, Chaitovitz, 1994). The employee must develop a discrimination case and accepted as correct and provedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The employee must also prove that it is a pretext for discrimination, which is the requirement for the pretext-only approach. Additionally, if the employer is not imminent to deliver an explanation of the conduct, the presumption of illegal discrimination is possible. On the other hand, an employee must submit additional proofs of discrimination to have significant chances of winning. Bogardus (2012) the controversy of this case was remarkable because the plaintiff charge started encloses the decision itself. The pretext-plus approach by Judge Scalia was corresponding under the Title VII. The public response to the case was not unanimous. Some observers viewed that Saint Marys pretext-plus approach as a comprehensive deviation of the ruling. Establishing the pretext is what makes the plaintiff prevailed. The argumentation of this case was it is impossible for the plaintiff to prevail under pretext-plus because this approach requires direct evidence of discrimination. Reviewing the factual setting and source of the case is essential in legal analysis. Melvin Hicks was an employee of Saint Marys Center from 1978 to early 1984. Hick is Black-American and a satisfactory employment history. Saint Marys Center is a correctional facility. Due to the complaints of the condition of the facility by the state and inmates, Saint Marys conducted an undercover investigation (Cundiff, Chaitovitz, 1994). The center concluded that reorganization and staff changes are needed to